Synergistic and Antagonistic Drug Combinations against SARS-CoV-2.


Antiviral drug development for COVID-19 is occurring at an unprecedented pace, yet there are still limited therapeutic options for treating this disease. We hypothesized that combining drugs with independent mechanisms of action could result in synergy against SARS-CoV-2, thus generating better antiviral efficacy. Using in silico approaches, we prioritized 73 combinations of 32 drugs with potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 and then tested them in vitro. Sixteen synergistic and eight antagonistic combinations were identified; among 16 synergistic cases, combinations of the FDA-approved drug nitazoxanide with remdesivir, amodiaquine, or umifenovir were most notable, all exhibiting significant synergy against SARS-CoV-2 in a cell model. However, the combination of remdesivir and lysosomotropic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, demonstrated strong antagonism. Overall, these results highlight the utility of drug repurposing and preclinical testing of drug combinations for discovering potential therapies to treat COVID-19.


Bobrowski, Tesia; Chen, Lu; Eastman, Richard; Itkin, Zina; Shinn, Paul; Chen, Catherine; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Michael, Samuel; Simeonov, Anton; Hall, Matthew; Zakharov, Alexey; Muratov, Eugene N;

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