Metabolism and pharmacokinetics characterization of metarrestin in multiple species.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class pyrrolo-pyrimidine-derived small molecule targeting a marker of genome organization associated with metastasis and is currently in preclinical development as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we report the in vitro ADME characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of metarrestin. METHODS: Solubility, permeability, and efflux ratio as well as in vitro metabolism of metarrestin in hepatocytes, liver microsomes and S9 fractions, recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and potential for CYP inhibition were evaluated. Single dose pharmacokinetic profiles after intravenous and oral administration in mice, rat, dog, monkey, and mini-pig were obtained. Simple allometric scaling was applied to predict human pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Metarrestin had an aqueous solubility of 150 µM at pH 7.4, high permeability in PAMPA and moderate efflux ratio in Caco-2 assays. The compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes, S9 fractions, and hepatocytes from six species, including human. Metarrestin is a CYP3A4 substrate and, in mini-pigs, is also directly glucuronidated. Metarrestin did not show cytochrome P450 inhibitory activity. Plasma concentration-time profiles showed low to moderate clearance, ranging from 0.6 mL/min/kg in monkeys to 48 mL/min/kg in mice and moderate to high volume of distribution, ranging from 1.5 L/kg in monkeys to 17 L/kg in mice. Metarrestin has greater than 80% oral bioavailability in all species tested. The excretion of unchanged parent drug in urine was < 5% in dogs and < 1% in monkeys over collection periods of ≥ 144 h; in bile-duct cannulated rats, the excretion of unchanged drug was < 1% in urine and < 2% in bile over a collection period of 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Metarrestin is a low clearance compound which has good bioavailability and large biodistribution after oral administration. Biotransformation appears to be the major elimination process for the parent drug. In vitro data suggest a low drug-drug interaction potential on CYP-mediated metabolism. Overall favorable ADME and PK properties support metarrestin's progression to clinical investigation.

Authors

Padilha, Elias; Shah, Pranav; Wang, Amy; Singleton, Marc D; Hughes, Emma A; Li, Dandan; Rice, Kelly A; Konrath, Kylie M; Patnaik, Samarjit; Marugan, Juan; Rudloff, Udo; Xu, Xin;

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