Glucocerebrosidase as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease.

Abstract

Introduction: The association between Gaucher disease, caused by the inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase, and Parkinson's disease was first recognized in the clinic, noting that patients with Gaucher disease and their carrier relatives had an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease. Currently, mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) are the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, with an inverse relationship between glucocerebrosidase and α-synuclein, a key factor in Parkinson pathogenesis. The hypothesis that therapeutic enhancement of brain glucocerebrosidase levels might reduce the aggregation, accumulation or spread of α-synuclein has spurred great interest in glucocerebrosidase as a novel therapeutic target.Area covered: This article explores the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the association between GBA1 mutations and Parkinson's disease and outlines therapeutic strategies to increase brain glucocerebrosidase, including gene therapy, targeted delivery of recombinant glucocerebrosidase to the brain, small-molecule chaperones to rescue mutant glucocerebrosidase, and small-molecule modulators to activate wild-type glucocerebrosidase.Expert opinion: Although an improved understanding of the mechanistic basis for GBA1-associated parkinsonism is essential, enhancing levels of brain glucocerebrosidase may have wide therapeutic implications. While gene therapy may ultimately be effective, less expensive and invasive small-molecule non-inhibitory chaperones or activators could significantly impact the disease course.

Authors

Chen, Yu; Sam, Richard; Sharma, Pankaj; Chen, Lu; Do, Jenny; Sidransky, Ellen;

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