Identification of Modulators that Activate the Constitutive Androstane Receptor from the Tox21 10K Compound Library.

Therapeutic Approaches


The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a nuclear receptor involved in all phases of drug metabolism and disposition. However, recently it's been implicated in energy metabolism, tumor progression, and cancer therapy as well. It is, therefore, important to identify compounds that induce hCAR activation to predict drug-drug interactions and potential therapeutic usage. In this study, we screen the Tox21 10,000 compound collection to characterize hCAR activators. A novel structural cluster of compounds was identified, which included nitazoxanide and tenonitrozole, while known structural clusters, such as flavones and prazoles, were also detected. Four compounds, neticonazole, diphenamid, phenothrin, and rimcazole, have been identified as novel hCAR activators, one of which, rimcazole, shows potential selectivity towards hCAR over its sister receptor, the pregnane X receptor (PXR). All four compounds translocated hCAR from the cytoplasm into the nucleus demonstrating the first step to CAR activation. Profiling these compounds as hCAR activators would enable an estimation of drug-drug interactions, as well as identify prospective therapeutically beneficial drugs.


Lynch, Caitlin; Mackowiak, Bryan; Huang, Ruili; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Wang, Hongbing; Xia, Menghang;

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