Recommendations toward a human pathway-based approach to disease research.

Paradigms and Technologies


Failures in the current paradigm for drug development have resulted in soaring research and development costs and reduced numbers of new drug approvals. Over 90% of new drug programs fail, the majority terminated at the level of Phase 2/3 clinical trials, largely because of efficacy failures or unexplained toxicity. A recent workshop brought together members from research institutions, regulatory agencies, industry, academia, and nongovernmental organizations to discuss how existing programs could be better applied to understanding human biology and improving drug discovery. Recommendations include increased emphasis on human relevance, better access and curation of data, and improved interdisciplinary and international collaboration.


Marshall, Lindsay J; Austin, Christopher; Casey, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Willett, Catherine;

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