Synthesis and N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Activity of Ketamine Metabolites.

Therapeutic Approaches


Ketamine is rapidly metabolized in the human body to a variety of metabolites, including the hydroxynorketamines. At least two hydroxynorketamines have significant antidepressant action in rodent models, with limited action against the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The synthesis of 12 hydroxynorketamines and their binding affinity to the NMDA receptor is presented here.


Morris, Patrick; Moaddel, Ruin; Zanos, Panos; Moore, Curtis E; Gould, Todd; Zarate, Carlos A; Thomas, Craig;

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