BORC coordinates encounter and fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes.


Whereas the mechanisms involved in autophagosome formation have been extensively studied for the past 2 decades, those responsible for autophagosome-lysosome fusion have only recently begun to garner attention. In this study, we report that the multisubunit BORC complex, previously implicated in kinesin-dependent movement of lysosomes toward the cell periphery, is required for efficient autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Knockout (KO) of BORC subunits causes not only juxtanuclear clustering of lysosomes, but also increased levels of the autophagy protein LC3B-II and the receptor SQSTM1. Increases in LC3B-II occur without changes in basal MTORC1 activity and autophagy initiation. Instead, LC3B-II accumulation largely results from decreased lysosomal degradation. Further experiments show that BORC KO impairs both the encounter and fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Reduced encounters result from an inability of lysosomes to move toward the peripheral cytoplasm, where many autophagosomes are formed. However, BORC KO also reduces the recruitment of the HOPS tethering complex to lysosomes and assembly of the STX17-VAMP8-SNAP29 trans-SNARE complex involved in autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Through these dual roles, BORC integrates the kinesin-dependent movement of lysosomes toward autophagosomes with HOPS-dependent autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These findings reveal a requirement for lysosome dispersal in autophagy that is independent of changes in MTORC1 signaling, and identify BORC as a novel regulator of autophagosome-lysosome fusion.


Jia, Rui; Guardia, Carlos M; Pu, Jing; Chen, Yu; Bonifacino, Juan S;

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