Identification of genotoxic compounds using isogenic DNA repair deficient DT40 cell lines on a quantitative high throughput screening platform.

Paradigms and Technologies

Abstract

DNA repair pathways play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by repairing DNA damage induced by endogenous processes and xenobiotics, including environmental chemicals. Induction of DNA damage may lead to genomic instability, disruption of cellular homeostasis and potentially tumours. Isogenic chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways can be used to identify genotoxic compounds and aid in characterising the nature of the induced DNA damage. As part of the US Tox21 program, we previously optimised several different DT40 isogenic clones on a high-throughput screening platform and confirmed the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxicants by measuring differential cytotoxicity in wild-type and DNA repair-deficient clones following chemical exposure. In the study reported here, we screened the Tox21 10K compound library against two isogenic DNA repair-deficient DT40 cell lines (KU70 (-/-) /RAD54 (-/-) and REV3 (-/-) ) and the wild-type cell line using a cell viability assay that measures intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels. KU70 and RAD54 are genes associated with DNA double-strand break repair processes, and REV3 is associated with translesion DNA synthesis pathways. Active compounds identified in the primary screening included many well-known genotoxicants (e.g. adriamycin, melphalan) and several compounds previously untested for genotoxicity. A subset of compounds was further evaluated by assessing their ability to induce micronuclei and phosphorylated H2AX. Using this comprehensive approach, three compounds with previously undefined genotoxicity-2-oxiranemethanamine, AD-67 and tetraphenylolethane glycidyl ether-were identified as genotoxic. These results demonstrate the utility of this approach for identifying and prioritising compounds that may damage DNA.

Authors

Nishihara, Kana; Huang, Ruili; Zhao, Jinghua; Shahane, Sampada A; Witt, Kristine L; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L; Tice, Raymond R; Takeda, Shunichi; Xia, Menghang;

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