Risk of cervical precancer and cancer among HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology and no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection.

Abstract

CONTEXT: US cervical cancer screening guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected women 30 years or older have recently been revised, increasing the suggested interval between Papanicolaou (Pap) tests from 3 years to 5 years among those with normal cervical cytology (Pap test) results who test negative for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). Whether a 3-year or 5-year screening interval could be used in HIV-infected women who are cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cervical precancer or cancer defined cytologically (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater [HSIL+]) or histologically (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater [CIN-2+]), as 2 separate end points, in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who at baseline had a normal Pap test result and were negative for oncogenic HPV. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 420 HIV-infected women and 279 HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at their enrollment in a multi-institutional US cohort of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002, with follow-up through April 30, 2011. Semiannual visits at 6 clinical sites included Pap testing and, if indicated, cervical biopsy. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens from enrollment were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction. The primary analysis was truncated at 5 years of follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Five-year cumulative incidence of cervical precancer and cancer. RESULTS: No oncogenic HPV was detected in 369 (88% [95% CI, 84%-91%]) HIV-infected women and 255 (91% [95% CI, 88%-94%]) HIV-uninfected women with normal cervical cytology at enrollment. Among these oncogenic HPV-negative women, 2 cases of HSIL+ were observed; an HIV-uninfected woman and an HIV-infected woman with a CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater. Histologic data were obtained from 4 of the 6 clinical sites. There were 6 cases of CIN-2+ in 145 HIV-uninfected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 1%-8%]) and 9 cases in 219 HIV-infected women (cumulative incidence, 5% [95% CI, 2%-8%]). This included 1 case of CIN-2+ in 44 oncogenic HPV-negative HIV-infected women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μL (cumulative incidence, 2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), 1 case in 47 women with CD4 cell count of 350 to 499 cells/μL (cumulative incidence, 2% [95% CI, 0%-7%]), and 7 cases in 128 women with CD4 cell count of 500 cells/μL or greater (cumulative incidence, 6% [95% CI, 2%-10%]). One HIV-infected and 1 HIV-uninfected woman had CIN-3, but none had cancer. CONCLUSION: The 5-year cumulative incidence of HSIL+ and CIN-2+ was similar in HIV-infected women and HIV-uninfected women who were cytologically normal and oncogenic HPV-negative at enrollment.

Authors

Keller, Marla J; Burk, Robert D; Xie, Xianhong; Anastos, Kathryn; Massad, L Stewart; Minkoff, Howard; Xue, Xiaonan; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Watts, D Heather; Levine, Alexandra M; Castle, Philip E; Colie, Christine; Palefsky, Joel M; Strickler, Howard D;

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/ epidemiology
  • Cervix Uteri/ cytology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Early Detection of Cancer/ standards
  • Female
  • HIV Infections
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Papanicolaou Test
  • Papillomavirus Infections
  • Precancerous Conditions/ epidemiology
  • Risk
  • United States/ epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/ epidemiology
  • Vaginal Smears

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